The establishment of two- or three-dimensional control networks is the most fundamental operation in the surveying of an area of large or small extent. The concept can best be illustrated by considering the survey of a relatively small area of land as shown in Figure below:   prevent sag in the tape and their end […]

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Before studying the art of levelling, it is necessary to clearly understand the following TERMS USED IN LEVELLING :   1. Level Surface :  surface parallel to the mean spheroid of the earth is called a level surface and the line drawn on the level surface is known as a level line. Hence all points lying on […]

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OBJECT AND USES OF LEVELLING As stated in the definition of levelling, the object is (i) to determine the elevations of given points with respect to a datum (ii) to establish the points of required height above or below the datum line. Uses of levelling are (i) to determine or to set the plinth level […]

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Advantages are: 1. Possibility of omitting measurement is eliminated. 2. The surveyor can compare the plotted work in the field then and there only. 3. Irregular objects are plotted more accurately, since they are seen while plotting. 4. Booking errors are eliminated. 5. Local attractions do not influence the plotting. 6. No great skill is […]

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