Before studying the art of levelling, it is necessary to clearly understand the following TERMS USED IN LEVELLING :   1. Level Surface :  surface parallel to the mean spheroid of the earth is called a level surface and the line drawn on the level surface is known as a level line. Hence all points lying on […]

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OBJECT AND USES OF LEVELLING As stated in the definition of levelling, the object is (i) to determine the elevations of given points with respect to a datum (ii) to establish the points of required height above or below the datum line. Uses of levelling are (i) to determine or to set the plinth level […]

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Advantages are: 1. Possibility of omitting measurement is eliminated. 2. The surveyor can compare the plotted work in the field then and there only. 3. Irregular objects are plotted more accurately, since they are seen while plotting. 4. Booking errors are eliminated. 5. Local attractions do not influence the plotting. 6. No great skill is […]

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Various methods used for METHODS OF LINEAR MEASUREMENTS may be grouped as: (i) Approximate (ii) Using chain or tape (iii) By optical means and (iv) Using electromagnetic distance measurement instruments. Approximates Methods of Linear Measurements……….. These methods are used in reconnaissance survey or to detect major mistakes committed while measuring with better methods. On smooth roads […]

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